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Enigmele oraşului Darabani: Cel mai mare proces din istoria justiţiei

Articol semnat Marian Moroşan şi preluat integral din Jurnalul de Botoşani.

Numele de daraban (sinonim cu dorobanţ) este de origine maghiară. De la această sinonimie provine şi denumirea oraşului Darabani, Botoşani. Cândva, în localitatea respectivă, darabanii alcătuiau un corp adus de Scarlat Calimachi, cu misiune de pază a graniţei.

Pronunţia DĂRĂBANI, adesea întâlnită, este incorectă, specifică Munteniei.

În oraşul Darabani a avut loc cel mai mare proces din istoria justiţiei româneşti de până la 1878. Evenimentul a fost consemnat în istorie ca „Procesul locuitorilor din Darabani la Curtea cu juraţi Dorohoi”. Respectivul proces viza un conflict între evrei şi români. Durata instrucţiei în acest proces a însumat 16 luni. Numărul dosarelor instrumentate a cuprins 11 volume. Tot în acest proces, au fost inculpate 68 de persoane şi s-au audiat 193 de martori.

Până şi juriştii implicaţi în acest proces au fost oameni de valoare. Cu referire la acest eveniment, arhivele îi consemnează pe Titu Maiorescu, Gr. Grandea sau Gheorghe Cimara.

La nivel naţional, despre eveniment, au scris Eminescu, Haşdeu şi, mai apoi, Iorga. Ecoul internaţional a fost dat de către publicaţiile occidentale pro evreieşti. În această situaţie, Mihail Kogălniceanu, care era ministru de externe, a fost nevoit să intervină cu o informare despre „cazul Darabani”, la finele Congresului de la Berlin. Intervenţia avea loc după războiul ruso – româno – turc din 1877 – 1878.

Conflictul dintre evrei şi românii din Darabani nu avea caracter etnic. În fond era un litigiu legat de proprietate. Vechiul nume al localităţii Darabani a fost Căbiceni. Prima atestare documentară s-a făcut printr-un zapis domnesc de la Petru Rareş, în 1546. Acest zapis era un act de întărire a unei proprietăţi boiereşti pe moşia Căbiceni. Prima menţiune cu numele de Darabani datează din 1725, pe o hartă întocmită de boierul Iordache Zmeură. În 1837, aşezarea a devenit târg cu 12 iarmaroace, printr-un hrisov – gospod emis la Iaşi de către domnitorul Mihail Sturdza.

Actualmente, în Darabani locuiesc peste 12 mii de suflete. În acest oraş se află conacul marelui logofăt şi hatman Th. Balş, datând din 1834. Prima şcoală sătească de stat din Moldova a fost tot la Darabani, în 1841. În primul război mondial, localitatea Darabani înregistra un număr de 96 de morţi şi eroi cu nume cunoscute. Dintre personalităţile de seamă născute la Darabani, cele mai cunoscute sunt Leon Dănăilă, poeţii Corneliu Popel şi Victor Teioşanu, profesorii universitari Gheorghe Moroşanu, Gheorghe Cliveţi şi Nicolae Papaghiuc. Academicianul Leon Dănăilă este un neurochirurg de faimă internaţională. El este cel care a introdus la noi laserul şi microscopul în operaţiile pe creier. Acesta sprijină financiar, constant, şcoala din Darabani care-i poartă numele.

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