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Theodor Balș: Întemeietorul (I)

Dacă familia Balș numai într-un interval de vreo 70 de ani a înzestrat Darabanii cu așezăminte ce fac cinste puținelor localități din ținut, e ușor de presupus ce ar fi însemnat Darabanii dacă Theodor Balș și urmașii săi ar fi apărut mai devreme și ar fi plecat mai târziu.

Din însemnările avocatului dărăbănean Emil Costeanu, 1937

Scurta poveste a Bălșeștilor la Darabani a început în 1824, când Theodor, pe atunci mare logofăt al Moldovei, decide înființarea unui târg pe moșia familiei sale din Darabani și construcția unui conac în localitate. Câteva decenii mai târziu scrierile vremii vorbeau despre un târg al Darabanilor care rivaliza ca mărime cu cel al Brăilei, fiind un nod negustoresc important și o comunitate în plină dezvoltare. Au trecut de-atunci aproape două secole, iar Bălșeștii nu mai sunt demult pe aici. Ne-au rămas așezămintele lor, neegalate încă în termeni de importanță și frumusețe, precum și amintirea unor conducători ai Moldovei care s-au stabilit cândva la Darabani.

Theodor Balș la Darabani

Moșia Darabanilor se afla deja în proprietatea Bălșeștilor de trei generații când Theodor Balș a hotărât să investească mai mult în regiune. Prin achiziții succesive, Theodor C. Balș a dublat întinderea de teren a moșiei, față de cea moștenită de la tatăl său Constantin, apoi a decis începerea construcției conacului și a bisericii din localitate. A cerut și primit de la domnitorul Mihail Sturdza hrisovul de transformare a așezării în târg și a facilitat dezvoltarea comerțului în regiune, prin oferirea de înlesniri economice comercianților.

Printre realizările lui Theodor Balș la Darabani:

  • 1824-1834: Construcția conacului Balș, care avea să devină, după plecarea Bălșeștilor din Darabani, sediul primăriei și al judecătoriei, iar – în prezent – al bibliotecii locale;
  • 1834-1840: Construcția bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Darabani, după planul catedralei Sfânta Sofia din Constantinopol. În 1955 biserica a fost declarată monument istoric;
  • 1837: Obținerea, prin Hrisovul Gospod Nr. 28 din 21 iunie 1837, a statutului de târg pentru Darabani, eveniment care avea să schimbe în bine pentru totdeauna soarta așezării;
  • 1838-1839: Promulgarea „Învoielii” prin care Theodor Balș oferea înlesniri economice atrăgătoare comercianților români și evrei care alegeau să se stabilească pe moșia sa. „Învoiala” a adus mari beneficii pe termen scurt târgului, dar s-a transformat, după expirarea ei, în cauza unora dintre cele mai mari neajunsuri ale localității: blocaj economic și social, lupte politice între români și evrei, ba chiar o ceartă „oficială”, de mare anvergură, purtată în instanță de către cele două etnii;
  • 1841: Înființarea la Darabani, tot cu acordul și ajutorul domnitorului Mihail Sturdza, a primei școli sătești de stat din țara Moldovei;
  • 1850-1860: Pietruirea Uliței Principale și aducerea telegrafului la Darabani.

Citește și:

Partea I: Întemeietorul

Partea a II-a: Viața de familie

Partea a III-a: Portretul

Partea a IV-a: Moștenirea


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