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Începuturile școlii la Darabani

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Când „Albina Românească” înștiința cititorii săi, în nr. 82 din anul 1841, că la Darabani luase ființă o nouă școală sătească, în Moldova existau deja, prin multe sate, asemenea instituții patronate de boieri. Dar școala din Darabani, ctitorie ivită la inițiativa hatmanului Theodor Balș, devine repede o instituție oficială. Balș obținuse de la cârmuire, odată cu înființarea școlii, și o subvenție de 1000 de lei anual pentru retribuirea învățătorului. Banii proveneau din bugetul Epitropiei școlilor. Epitropia desemnează și un învățător pentru Darabani, pe Gheorghe Crudu, cu studii seminaristice la Socola.

Foarte important: cu acest prilej Asachi elaborează un „plan lămuritor” privind funcționarea învățământului sătesc. Cele cinci articole ale planului lămuritor se refereau la vârsta elevilor (8-14 ani), durata lecțiilor zilnice (4 ore vara, cu pauză de masă, și 3 ore iarna), durata școlarizării (2 ani), programa pentru anul începător și pentru anul II.

Planul lămuritor conținea instrucțiuni speciale privind munca practică în grădina școlară, unde fiecare elev avea o „porție” de pământ cuprinzând și pomi fructiferi. Un absolvent urma să posede și cunoștințe de gramatică, citire și aritmetică, istorie sfântă, scriere, rugăciuni, istorisiri morale, lucrarea pământului, caligrafie și cântări bisericești.

Cum se vede, programa de învățământ gândită de Gheorghe Asachi avea un caracter enciclopedic, urmărind instruirea multilaterală a școlarilor, care trebuiau să se aleagă și cu niște deprinderi practice de muncă.

Acest plan lămuritor este de fapt un regulament de organizare a învățământului sătesc, primul de acest gen în Moldova. Așa cum școala înființată la Darabani în 1841, cu învățător plătit de stat și funcționând după normele ferme ale unui regulament de organizare, trebuie considerată că întâia școală sătească de stat din Moldova.

Articol semnat de Victor Teișanu în Clopotul de Botoșani în 1986.

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